What Is Metabolites Of Cocaine?


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Cocaine is an alkaloid that is obtained from cocoa plant leaves. It is often used as a recreational drug (although it is illegal) and sometimes used in medicine as a topical anesthetic. Cocaine is metabolised in the liver and produces two major metabolites and four minor metabolites. The major metabolites are benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester. The minor metabolites are norcocaine, p-hydroxycocaine, m-hydroxycocaine, p-hydroxybenzoylecgonine and m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine. After cocaine is consumed, the major metabolites appear in the blood quicker and in larger quantities.

If cocaine and alcohol are consumed together, they combine together in the liver to form cocaethylene.Benzoylecgonine has little to no effect on the nervous system or the heart rate.
However, norcocaine and cocaethylene have more  long lasting and more pronounced effects on the heart rate, blood pressure and neurochemical reactions.

When a urine test is taken to determine the cocaine consumed, the metabolites benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester and cocaethylene are usually looked for and analyzed. Urine, saliva and sweat tests are adequate to determine cocaine use within four to seven days of consumption. To determine cocaine use over a prolonged period, nail and hair may be tested for the major metabolites. The hair and nails that are growing during the period of cocaine usage contain traces of the metabolites and are without cocaine derivatives after it was given up.

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